Saturday, May 23, 2020

The Value of Gender and How it Represents the Body in Society

In order to answer the question I would like to explain in brief the value of gender and the ways it represents the body in the society. The term â€Å"Gender â€Å"and â€Å"Race â€Å"is by now used so frequently in academic discussions. While sex differences are rooted in biology how we come to understand and perform gender is based on culture. As it is said by ( Byers Dell ) that we always view culture â€Å" as a process through which people circulate and struggle social relations, and therefore, our selves. â€Å" and on the other hand Race has no longer been seen as a biological type. The process of human reality has always seen the constructions of race and gender. As a term ‘Gender ‘refers to the social construction of sex. Gender has come to replace†¦show more content†¦While biology may play a part in male and female behaviour society plays an equal stronger role in influencing the extent to which men and women adopt masculine or feminine characteristics. â€Å"The significant of sex and gender in the lives of member of contemporary western societies â€Å"by ( Le Guin ). As these quote indicates that sex plays a critical roles in the life of the individual influencing everything from the way we dress, to what we eat, the kind of things we do, how we behave, what we likely to achieve in our lives. As we know people in United States are more open minded about gender roles today than they were in the past. Women are now allowed to work as lawyers, truck drivers etc where as men today works as nurses and some even stay at home to take care of their children. As we still see that in many society, has the strong ideas of women working in traditionally male dominated field like constructions, are still viewed, which indicates the gender roles in the society. As Mary Gentile book â€Å" How We learn Who We Are â€Å" describes how she too received the message from church, family and school about what it meant to be white, catholic, Itali an and female. Gentile writes that she came to â€Å"experience that the polarities of gender....were inadequate to describe reality â€Å" Perhaps one of the most inspirational example of a gender non conformist who was able to transcend the confines of gender and race is writer and playwright Lorraine Hansberry, who hasShow MoreRelatedTransgender Discrimination1615 Words   |  7 Pageswhich is gender identification not sexual orientation. Transgender are individuals whose gender identities or gender expressions contrast with traditional social norms and expectations. Gender identity refers to a person’s sub-conscious sex or their internal sense of being male or female. Gender expression refers to the way a person shows their gender identity to others through their behavior. Transgender individuals should be allowed to have a physical transformation to define their gender as manRead MoreSex, Gender, And Gender915 Words   |  4 Pageshormones. People often group sex and gender together as if they are the same thing, but really they are two separate categories. Gender is a category that splits bodies into a bi nary system of women and men. Ultimately the two terms intertwine because, one’s biologically determined sex is assigned a gender role to play. The main difference between the two is that gender excludes biology. Sex represents the body’s anatomy and physiological workings and gender represents social forces that mold behaviorRead MoreAnalysis Of Allen Ginsberg s Howl And 1661 Words   |  7 Pagesheteronormative, procreation-driven society and was done with living at society’s limits. The idea of beat literature has a capricious form, although, also considers the customary narration techniques, and indeed masculinist and heterosexist prospects. The Beat generation indicates an individual that has been put down, or has been oppressed around with deviated norms. Therefore, this impression of queerness is a representation of him being an activist in society and used to take action to encourageRead MoreGender Oppression Through The Lense Of Racism. When It1584 Words   |  7 Pages Gender Oppression Through the Lense of Racism When it comes to gender oppression, it is important to view it through other systems of oppression because it allows us to understand the many different ways in which individuals or groups experience it and how these other oppressions contribute to gender oppression as well. There are people who suffer because of many systems of oppression, such as racism, poverty, or cissexism. These systems start to intersect, become dependent on each other,Read MoreGender Distinction Between Sex And Gender1469 Words   |  6 Pagesobjectives will be tried to achieve in this paper: 1) Explicate the distinction between sex and gender. 2) I will go through the Sally Haslanger’s argument which supports the distinction, and Rachel Williams’ argument which objects the sex and gender distinction. 3) I will examine that the necessity of having the sex and gender distinction in the society. I suggest that the necessity of having the sex and gender distinction is perspective-sensitive, w hich means that the necessity of having the distinctionRead MoreThe Body And Identity Of Afro Descendant Women1618 Words   |  7 PagesBody identities and transformation: the struggles to belong Stereotypes and negative prejudice related to the body and identity of afro descendant women have generated over dimensionality of their sexuality, affecting their relation with the rest of the population and with afro descendant men. To explain the process of construction of beauty standards, Markowtksy talks about how the hierarchy system can establish different dominance relations. Thus, there has been established relations betweenRead MoreThe Egg And The Sperm1188 Words   |  5 Pagesliterature piece by claiming that culture tends to shape many things in the society including the manner as to how biological scientists illustrate what they know about the scientific world. She goes ahead to explain various scientific details regarding reproductive technologies that confer information as to how gender stereotypes prefer hiding within the scientific language of biology. Martin uses two physical aspects of the human body to support her claims, the female egg, and the male sperm. There isRead MoreThe Topic Of Sexuality1144 Words   |  5 Pagesinequities. Linking into the body of essay (para)- One of the prominent ideas to emerge from research within the feminist movement is the relationship between sexuality and gender (Horrocks. 1997). For example, Horrocks suggests that, â€Å"Heterosexuality seems innately associated with certain notions of ‘masculinity’ and ‘femininity’, and notions of ‘man’ and ‘woman’ (Horrocks, 1997, p.186) Body- Present a critical discussion regarding: gender roles, sexual orientation and gender identity (essay question)Read MoreThroughout History We Have Seen The Evolution Of How Women1524 Words   |  7 PagesThroughout history we have seen the evolution of how women are perceived by society. We can easily notice how women are striving towards gender equality and how women are gaining more power and respect in society as a whole. In the summer of 2016, â€Å"Vanity Fair† published a controversial photo of transgender, Caitlyn Jenner, officially premiering her new self to the world. The news that the idolized Bruce Jenner had changed switched genders had been buzzing months prior to this publication. As theRead MoreAnalysis Of The Little Mermaid 1688 Words   |  7 Pagesdesire their own form of happiness and success, Ariel’s desire and the lengths she’ll go to acquire love represents a stereotypical society of powerless women who depend on men for their surviv al. As opposed to Ursula, who seeks revenge and the crown of Triton but ultimately fails; her failure demonstrates the power of men that will always dominate over women in the end, but her attempt represents the ambitious women out there that want more than just love. The features and background of Ariel alone

Tuesday, May 12, 2020

What Is the Great Sphinx - Brief Overview

Question: What Is the Great Sphinx? Answer: The Great Sphinx  is a massive statue with the body of a lion and the face of a man. Dont get worried if you mix this one up with the Greek monster that riddled Oedipus at Thebes - they share the same name and are both mythical beasts that are part-lion. Just how big is the Sphinx? It measures 73.5 m. in length by 20 m. in height. In fact, the Great Sphinx is the earliest known monumental sculpture, although the statue has been missing its nose since at least Napoleonic times. It resides on the  plateau of Giza, where the most famous - and biggest - of the  Old Kingdom  pyramids are located. The  Egyptian necropolis at Giza contains three monumental pyramids: the Great Pyramid of  Khufu (Cheops),who may have ruled from about 2589 to 2566 B.C.,the Pyramid of Khufus son,  Khafra (Chephren),who may have ruled from about 2558 B.C. to about 2532 B.C.,  the pyramid of Khufus grandson,  Menkaure (Mycerinus). The Sphinx was probably modeled after - and built by - one of these pharaohs. Modern scholars think that guy was Khafre - although some disagree - meaning the Sphinx was built in the twenty-sixth century B.C. (although some archaeologists maintain otherwise). Khafre probably modeled the Sphinx after himself, meaning that famous head represents this O.G. pharaoh. What was the point of a king showing himself as a half-lion, half-human mythical creature, especially if hed already built a pyramid to commemorate his life? Well, for one, having a giant god version of yourself watching over your pyramid and temple for eternity is a pretty good way to keep tomb robbers away and impress future generations, at least in theory. He could watch over his tomb complex forever! The Sphinx was a special creature whose crafting showed how the man he represented was both royal and divine. Both lion and man, he wore the  names  headdress of the pharaoh and the long false beard that only a king wore. This was the representation of a god king above and beyond his usual depiction, a creature beyond normal comprehension. Even in antiquity, the Egyptians themselves were fascinated by the Sphinx. The pharaoh Thutmose IV - who hailed from the Eighteenth Dynasty and ruled in the late fifteenth and early fourteenth centuries B.C.   - set up a stele between its paws that declared how the statues spirit came to him in a dream and promised to make him king in exchange for the young mans dusting the Sphinx off. This proclamation, a.k.a. the Dream Stele, records how Thutmose took a nap near the Sphinx, who popped up in his dream and made him the bargain if Thut got rid of the sand burying him. Egypt FAQ Index How tall was the Great Pyramid?Is it hieroglyphic or hieroglyph?What were the 10 plagues in Egypt?What is the Great Sphinx?Who was the boy king Tutankhamen?What were the canopic jars for? -Edited by Carly Silver

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Code Division Multiple Access Communication Systems Free Essays

string(31) " be noise like to other users\." Chapter 2- Communication System Telecommunication systems have now made it possible to pass on with virtually anyone at any clip. Early telegraph and telephone system used Cu wire to transport signal over the earth’ surface and across oceans and high frequence ( HF ) wireless, besides normally called shortwave wireless, made possible inter-continental telephone links.Every communicating system has its ain frequence scope, system, capacity, application execution cost. We will write a custom essay sample on Code Division Multiple Access Communication Systems or any similar topic only for you Order Now On the footing of transmittal system there are two types of communicating system †¢ Wired communicating system †¢ Wireless communicating system 2.2 Multiple Access Technique A limited sum of bandwidth is allocated for radio services. A radio system is required to incorporate as many users as possible by efficaciously sharing the limited bandwidth. Therefore, in communicating, the term multiple entree can non be defined as a agency of leting multiple users to at the same time portion the finite bandwidth with least possible debasement in the public presentation of the system. There are four multiple entree methods – a ) Frequency Division Multiple Access ( FDMA ) B ) Time Division Multiple Access ( TDMA ) degree Celsius ) Code Division Multiple Access ( CDMA ) vitamin D ) Space Division Multiple Access ( SDMA ) Frequency Division Multiple Accesses ( FDMA ) FDMA is one of the oldest multiple entree techniques for cellular systems when uninterrupted transmittal is required for parallel services. In this bandwidth is divided into a figure of channels and distributed among users with a finite part of bandwidth for lasting usage, as illustrated in figure 2.2. The channels are assigned merely when there is a demand of the users. Therefore when a channel is non in usage it consequences in a otiose resource. img alt="" src=""/ Fig 2.2Channel Use by FDMA FDMA channels have narrow bandwidth of about 30 KHz, and therefore they are normally implemented in narrow set system. Since the user has his part of bandwidth all the clip, FDMA does non necessitate clocking control, which makes it simple. Even though no two users use the same frequence set at the same clip, guard sets are introduced between sets to minimise channel intervention. Guard sets are fresh frequence slots which separates neighbouring channels. This leads to a wastage of bandwidth. In a non-continuous transmittal bandwidth goes wasted since it is non being utilized for a part of the clip. Time Division Multiple Access ( TDMA ) In digital systems, uninterrupted transmittal is non required as the users do non use the allotted bandwidth all the clip. In such systems, TDMA is a technique compared to FDMA. Global Systems for Mobile communications i.e GSM uses the TDMA technique. In TDMA, bandwidth is available to the user but merely for a finite period of clip. In most instances the bandwidth is divided into fewer channels compared to FDMA and the users are allotted clip slots during which they have the full channel bandwidth at their disposal. This is illustrated in figure 2.3. img alt="" src=""/ Fig 2.3Channel Uses by TDMA TDMA requires careful clip synchronism since users portion the bandwidth in the frequence sphere. As the figure of channels are less, channel intervention is about negligible, hence the guard clip between the channels is significantly smaller. Guard clip is spacing clip between the TDMA. In cellular communications, whenever a user moves from one cell to other there is a opportunity that user could see a call loss if there are no free clip slots. TDMA uses different clip slots for transmittal every bit good as response. Code Division Multiple Access In CDMA, all the users occupy the same bandwidth, though they are all assigned separate codifications, which distinguishes them from each other as shown in figure 2.4. CDMA systems utilize a spread spectrum technique in which a spreading signal, is uncorrelated to the signal and has a larger bandwidth, is used to distribute the narrow set signal. Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum i.e DS-SS is most normally used for codification division multiple surplus. In Direct sequence spread spectrum, the message signal is multiplied by a Pseudo Random Noise Code, which has a noise like belongingss. Each user has its ain codification which is extraneous to the codification of every other users. In order to feel the user, the receiving system is required to cognize the codeword used by the sender. contrasting TDMA, CDMA does non necessitate clip synchronism between the users. img alt="" src=""/ Fig 2.4Channel Uses by CDMA 2.4 CDMA 2.4.1 History Code Division Multiple Access ( CDMA ) is a new construct in wireless communications. It has achieved widespread credence by cellular system operators, that will dramatically increase both their system capacity and the service quality. CDMA is a signifier of spread-spectrum, that have been used in military applications for old ages. The rule of spread spectrum is the usage of noise-like moving ridges and, as the name connote bandwidths much larger than that required for simple point to indicate communicating at the same information rate. foremost there were two motive: To defy enemy attempts to throng the communications ( anti-jam, or AJ ) , or to conceal the fact that communicating was even taking topographic point, from clip to clip called low chance of intercept. It has a history that goes back to the early yearss of World War second. The usage of CDMA for nomadic wireless applications is new. It was planned theoretically in the late fourty’s. profitable applications became promising because of two evolutionary developments. One was the handiness of really low cost, high denseness digital ICs, which cut down the size and cost of the endorser Stationss to an adequately low value. Introduction to CDMA CDMA is a multiple entree technique that allows multiple users to convey independent information within the same bandwidth at the same time. Each user is assigned a pseudo-random codification that is either extraneous to the codifications of all the other users or the codification possesses appropriate cross-correlation belongingss that minimize the multiple entree intervention ( MAI ) . This codification is superimposed on an information signal therefore, doing the signal emerges to be noise like to other users. You read "Code Division Multiple Access Communication Systems" in category "Essay examples" Merely the intended receiving system has a reproduction of the same codification and uses it to pull out the information signal. This so allows the sharing of the same spectrum by multiple users without doing inordinate MAI. It besides ensures message privateness, since merely the intended user is able to â€Å"decode† the signal. This codification is besides known as a spreadi ng codification, since it spreads the bandwidth of the original informations signal into a much higher bandwidth before transmittal. 2.4.2 CDMA Classification Tree img alt="UntitledFEDF.png" src=""/ Fig 2.6Classification Tree of the assorted types of CDMA Techniques Advantages of CDMA One of the chief advantages of CDMA is that call dropouts occur merely when the phone is at least twice every bit far from the base station. It is used in the pastoral countries where GSM make non acquire to work decently. Another advantage is capacity means it has a really high spectral capacity so that it can suit more users. Disadvantages of CDMA One major job in CDMA engineering is channel pollution, where signals from excessively different cell sites are present in the subscriber’s phone but none of them is foremost. When this state of affairs arises the characteristic of the audio signal degrades. Another disadvantage is when compared to GSM it lacks international roaming capablenesss. 2.5 Spread Spectrum Spread spectrum are the methods in which energy generated at a individual frequence is spread over a broad set of frequences. The basic spread spectrum technique is shown in Figure 2.7. This is done to accomplish transmittal that is robust against the channel damages, and to be able to defy natural interventions or thronging besides to forestall hostile sensing. These techniques were developed by military counsel systems. The technique is said to be spread spectrum if transmittal bandwidth is much greater than minimal bandwidth needed to convey the information.The system achieves spread spectrum if it fulfills the undermentioned demands: Signal occupies bandwidth much larger of the minimal bandwidth necessary to direct information. Spreading is done with the aid of distributing codification signal which is independent of the informations. At the receiving system, de-spreading is done by the correlativity of the received dispersed signal with a synchronised reproduction of the distributing signal used to distribute the information. img alt="" src=""img alt="" src=""Spread signal bandwidth img alt="" src=""img alt="" src=""Undesired signal img alt="" src=""img alt="" src=""img alt="" src=""img alt="" src=""img alt="" src=""img alt="" src=""informations signal img alt="" src=""img alt="" src=""img alt="" src=""img alt="" src=""img alt="" src=""img alt="" src=""img alt="" src=""img alt="" src=""img alt="" src=""img alt="" src=""recovered informations Spreading code signal Spreading codification signal Fig 2.7Model of Basic Spread Spectrum Technique The chief parametric quantity in dispersed spectrum systems is the treating addition: Is the ratio of transmittal and information bandwidth:Gp =img alt="" src="", which is fundamentally the spreading factor. The processing addition calculates the figure of users that can be allowed, the sum of multi-path effects and the trouble to throng a signal. Spread spectrum can be classified as follows – a ) Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum B ) Frequency Hoping Spread Spectrum degree Celsius ) Time Hopping Spread Spectrum 2.5.1 DS-CDMA Direct Sequence is the best Dispersed Spectrum Technique. The DS-CDMA method provides a multiple of benefits in cellular systems including easiness in planing frequence channels and protection against intervention, such that a high procedure addition is used. In DS-CDMA each user has its ain spreading codification. The choice of good codification is of import because auto-correlation belongingss and length of the codification restricts system capacity. The codification can be divided into two categories- Orthogonal codifications ( Walsh codifications ) Non-orthogonal codifications ( PN, Gold, Kasami codifications ) The informations signal is multiplied by a Pseudo Random Noise Code. A PN codification is a sequence of french friess its scope is -1 and 1 ( polar ) or 0 and 1 ( non-polar ) . This consequences in low cross-correlation values among the codifications and the trouble to throng or observe a information message. A usual manner to make a PN codification is by agencies of at least one displacement registry. The bit rate decides the rate at which distributing signals are transmitted. At the receiver terminal, spread signals are decoded with the aid of correlativity maps. Cross correlativity de-spreads the standard signals and retrieves the familial signal similar to the user’s original signal. The distributing sequences can orthogonal agencies ‘0’ transverse correlativity or random sequences with low cross-correlation belongingss. img alt="" src=""img alt="" src=""img alt="" src=""img alt="" src=""Y ( T )img alt="" src=""/ img alt="" src=""img alt="" src=""img alt="" src=""img alt="" src=""img alt="" src=""img alt="" src=""m ( T ) C ( T ) Cos ( wt ) Fig 2.8Direct Sequence Spread – Spectrum Modulation System In the DS-CDMA technique, each spots of the users informations are multiplied with a codification in the transmitting terminal. The codification sequence used in conveying terminal performs the function of distributing codification. The baseband theoretical account of a DS-CDMA system is shown in fig 2.8. Let m ( T ) denotes a binary information sequence, degree Celsius ( T ) denotes a codification sequence. The wave forms m ( T ) and c ( T ) denote polar representations in footings of two degrees as  ±1. By multiplying the information spots by the codification, each information spot is divided into a little clip increases that are called french friess. The baseband signalimg alt="" src=""( T ) is filtered to restrict energy within the bandwidth, defined by the codification rate. The bearer transition normally used in dispersed spectrum is phase displacement identifying. Sing the figure we get: img alt="" src=""( T ) = m ( T ) C ( T ) †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ ( 3.2 ) The baseband signalimg alt="" src=""( T ) is convoluted with the impulse response of the spectrum determining filter to give Y ( T ) : Y ( T ) =img alt="" src=""( T ) ? H ( T ) , where * denotes convolution†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ The set base on balls signalimg alt="" src=""( T ) = [img alt="" src=""( T ) ? H ( T ) ] cosimg alt="" src=""T ) †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.. ( 3.4 ) img alt="" src=""/ img alt="" src=""img alt="" src=""img alt="" src=""img alt="" src=""img alt="" src=""img alt="" src=""img alt="" src=""img alt="" src=""img alt="" src=""m ( T ) img alt="" src=""img alt="" src=""img alt="" src=""img alt="" src=""img alt="" src=""/ img alt="" src=""img alt="" src=""/ img alt="" src=""/ Cos ( wt ) Clock img alt="" src=""/ C ( T ) Fig 2.9Matched Filter Spread-Spectrum Receiver. The standard Band base on balls signalimg alt="" src=""( T ) is converted to an tantamount complex low base on balls signal A ( T ) by blending with a locally generated coherent bearer. The complex low base on balls signal A ( T ) =img alt="" src=""( T ) cosimg alt="" src=""t†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.. ( 3.5 ) The de-spread signal B ( T ) = A ( T ) [ C ( T ) ? H ( T ) ] †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ ( 3.6 ) The end product of the matched filter D ( T ) =img alt="" src=""( 3.7 ) . The receiving system decodes the informations: D ( T ) A ; gt ; 0 decode binary ‘1’ otherwise decode binary ‘0’. img alt="" src=""img alt="" src=""img alt="" src=""img alt="" src=""img alt="" src=""img alt="" src=""img alt="" src=""-11 1 1 -1 -1 1 -1 -1 1 1 1 -1 -1 1 -1 -1 -1 img alt="" src=""img alt="" src=""user’s spot dispersed signal Despread signal Received spot img alt="" src=""img alt="" src="" distributing sequence distributing sequence Fig 2.10User Signal in DS-CDMA System Let us believe the first spots of four users. By multiplying each spot with a PN codification, users spots are represented by seven french friess as shown above. User 1 [ 1 ] : 1 C1: -1 -1 1 1 1 -1 1 = A ; gt ; -1 -1 1 1 1 -1 1 User 2 [ 1 ] : -1 C2: 1 -1 -1 1 1 1 -1= A ; gt ;-1 1 1 -1 -1 -1 1 User 3 [ 1 ] : 1 C3: -1 1 -1 -1 1 1 1 = A ; gt ; -1 1 -1 -1 1 1 1 User 4 [ 1 ] : -1 C4: 1 -1 1 -1 -1 1 1= A ; gt ; -1 1 -1 1 1 -1 – 1 R [ 1 ] : -4 2 0 0 2 -2 2 ( received informations ) The received information consists of information of four users. To retrieve the original spots of users from the received informations, the received informations should multiplied with the codification sequence in the receiving system that is precisely same with that is used for distributing the original informations in sender agencies ( de-spreading ) . We assume that the receiving system operates in perfect synchrony with the sender. As a last measure, determination is made by comparing the consequences with a threshold value as shown below. R [ 1 ] * C1= 4-2+2+2+2= 8 A ; gt ; 0 = A ; gt ; 1 R [ 1 ] * C2= -4-2+2-2-2= -8 A ; lt ; 0 = A ; gt ; -1 R [ 1 ] * C3= 4+2+2-2+2= 8 A ; gt ; 0 = A ; gt ; 1 R [ 1 ] * C4= -4-2-2-2+2= -8 A ; lt ; 0 = A ; gt ; -1 Advantages of DS-CDMA It has an intervention rejection belongings ; every user is identified with a specific codification sequence which is about extraneous to the other users codifications. The DS-CDMA besides excludes the demand of channel spliting therefore all users use the full channel bandwidth. Furthermore, it is stiff to multipath attenuation. Signals in DS-CDMA systems are indistinguishable strength full a broad bandwidth which can pull strings the multipath attenuation to modify the end product. Properties of DS-CDMA. Multiple Access – If multiple users use the channel at the same clip, there will be multiple signals overlapping in clip and frequence. At the receiver terminal coherent demodulation is used to take the codification transition. This method concentrates the power of the desired user in the information bandwidth. If the cross-correlations between the codification of the desired user and the codifications of the interfering users are little, consistent sensing will merely set a little portion of the power of the interfering signals into the information bandwidth. Narrowband Interference- The coherent sensing at the receiving system involves a generation of the standard signal with a locally generated codification sequence. However, as we see at the sender, multiplying a narrowband signal with a wideband codification sequence spreads the spectrum of the narrowband signal so that its power in the information bandwidth decreases by a factor which is equal to the processing addition. 2.6 Problem Description Main job with DS-SS is the so called Near –Far consequence. This is described by an illustration. In figure 2.12 this consequence is present when an interfering sender TX ( B ) is closer to the receiving system RX ( A ) than the intended TX ( A ) and, the correlativity between the standard signal from the interfering sender TX ( B ) and RX ( A ) can be higher than the correlativity between the standard signal from the intended sender TX ( A ) and RX ( A ) . The consequence is that proper informations sensing is non possible. Transmitter Tx ( B ) img alt="" src=""img alt="" src=""img alt="" src=""img alt="" src=""img alt="" src="" img alt="" src=""img alt="" src="" img alt="" src=""img alt="" src=""Transmitter Tx ( A ) img alt="" src=""img alt="" src="" img alt="" src="" Fig 2.12Near Far Effect Another job is hidden and exposed terminus in wireless Ad-hoc web. Hidden terminusjob refers- The hit of package at the having node due to the coincident transmittal of those nodes that are non within the direct transmittal scope of the transmitter. Exposed terminusjob refers- The inability of a node which is blocked due to nearby transmission node, to convey another node. For Example if both node S1 and S2 transmit to node R1 at same clip their packages collide at node R1.This happens because both nodes S1 and S2 are hidden from each other as they are non within the direct transmittal scope of each other. This is called concealed terminus job. On the other manus if a transmittal from node S1 to another node R1 is already in advancement, node S3 can non convey to node R2, as it concludes that its neighbour node S1 is in conveying node and hence it should non interface with the on-going transmittal. This job reduces the throughput of web when traffic burden is high. img alt="" src=""img alt="" src=""img alt="" src=""img alt="" src=""img alt="" src=""img alt="Untitled.png" src=""/ Transmission scope of node S1 Transmission scope of node S2 img alt="" src=""/ Fig 2.13Hidden and Exposed Terminal Problems 2.7 Proposed Work The Basic motivation of our undertaking was to analyze and develop an Efficient Mac based DS-CDMA protocol for work outing near far job. A CDMA communicating system requires an efficient design and testing of its subsystems of PN-sequence generator, spectrum spreading and de-spreading digital circuits and digital modulator and detector faculties which give high throughput. Another issue is near far consequence. 2.7.1 Reason for proposed protocol The Near far consequence is created in the uplink of DS-SS CDMA. When a combination of unfastened and closed-loop power control which ensures that each terminus generates the same signal power at the base station. The base station monitors the power of standard signal from each terminus and instructs distant terminuss to increase their signal powers and nearby terminuss to diminish theirs illustration below shows the power control entirely is non plenty to cut down the near–far job in DS SS CDMA ad-hoc Network. Example: – Letimg alt="" src=""denote the distance between nodes Ks and n. suppose A wants to pass on with B utilizing a given codification and C wants to pass on with D utilizing a different codification. Suppose that tap ? dCD, dCB A ; lt ; A ; lt ; tap, and dad A ; lt ; A ; lt ; dCD. Then, the MAI caused by C makes it impossible for B to have A transmittal. Similarly, the Multiple entree intervention caused by A makes it impossible for D to have C transmittal. It is of import to observe that the two transmittals can non take topographic point at the same time, irrespective of what transmittal powers are selected if an addition in power is made to battle the MAI at B, this increased power will destruct the response at D. img alt="" src=""/ Fig 2.14Example shows the Power Control entirely is non plenty to cut down the Near–Far job in DS-SS CDMA Ad-hoc Network The above Fig. unveils two types of jobs – . 1.Medium entree job: – The usage of two different distributing codifications to happen at the same clip is non possible for two transmittals, this job is referred to as medium entree job. 2. Power control job: – If the terminuss adjust their signal powers so two transmittals can take topographic point at the same clip so that the intervention caused by one transmittal is non big plenty to pulverize package response at other terminuss. This is referred as power control job. So the cardinal solution to the close far job must hold both elements: power control and medium entree. 2.7.2 DESIGN GOAL FOR PROTOCOL The Following are the specifications while planing a MAC protocol for Ad-hoc web: The operation of the protocol should be widen and provide quality of service for existent clip traffic. The protocol must be a non-synchronous, spread operation, every bit good as scalable for big webs. It must besides affect minimum exchange of information and must be suited for real-time execution. The protocol must be scalable to big web. in this protocol should be minimise the consequence of hidden and exposed terminus job. The protocol should hold agencies for adaptative informations rate control and it should hold power control mechanisms in order to expeditiously pull off the energy ingestion of node. The receiving system circuitry should non be complex in the sense that it should non be required to supervise the whole codification set. So we design the DS-SS CDMA system with MAC protocol utilizing VHDL. VHDL Implementation of DS-SS CDMA based Mac protocol for Ad-hoc Networks 1 How to cite Code Division Multiple Access Communication Systems, Essay examples

Sunday, May 3, 2020

Socialcultural free essay sample

This addresses subject learning objective(s): 1, 2, 3 and 4 This addresses program learning objectives(s) weight: Due: 5. Mom Flay 4 Par 2014 While this Is the time for online submission (Turning), you must submit a hard copy of the essay in the tutorial on 9th April (or in the designated assignment box for this subject prior to this date). Length: 1500- 2000 words Task: This assignment is to be done Individually, and is designed to lead you Into the tourism studies literature and to foster the development of the practice of discussing inception issues in tourism studies.In academia the definition of tourism varies according to ones philosophical approach. Consequently many definitions exist. Steak (2005) defines tourism as follows: Tourism is travel and temporary stay, involving at least one night away from the region of a persons usual home that is undertaken with the major expectation of satisfying leisure needs that are perceived as being more enjoyably able to be satisfied by being at places outside of, and qualitatively deferent to, the home region. We will write a custom essay sample on Socialcultural or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page In this essay you are required to critically analyses the relevance of Steers definition in the planning and development of tourism today. Critical analysis requires an in- depth understanding of the current debates In tourism academia and therefore you should compare Steers definition with others that have been produced. The topic theme has been developed to encourage you to start employing a encouraged to read as widely as possible around this topic. Spend some time in the library, but start with a detailed reading of the following articles which display a range of views:Please note that nothing will be read beyond the specified maximum. The essay must adhere to the TTS Business School Guide to Writing Assignments in format and referencing. Please note that referencing is an essential tool in academic writing. Criteria: 1 . Evidence that theorists are fully read and understood. 2. Evidence that original work by the theorist has been read and sourced. 3. Critical analytical skills. 4. Good structure of the essay with an introduction, body and conclusion. 5. Fluency in writing. 6. A conclusion which reveals your own views effectively.

Thursday, March 26, 2020

accounting standards board paper Essays - Financial Regulation

Accounting Standards Boards Paper In 2001, the company Enron made financial history. This energy company was warehoused in Houston, TX. Due to poor financial reporting, and theft, this company became known for its bankruptcy. Thousands of employees lost their jobs and billions of dollars were lost. This act was done by strategically planned accounting fraud. The Sarbanes-Oxley Act was also created as an outcome. However, accounting issues have gone back way before this incident. History of IASB and FASB Accounting dates as far back as thousands of years. Although they were not trained by any standard, there was someone who was responsible for calculating the finances of businesses. Books were written on the subject as early as the 1400s. ?In 1494, an Italian monk, Fra Luca Pacioli, wrote a book on arithmetic called Summa de Arithmetca Geometria Proportioni et Proportionalita (Schroeder et al., p. 3, 2005). People have always been curious on how much money they were making and how it was spent. For hundreds of years, a variety of groups, committees, and boards were formed to create some sort of system. Eventually, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) was founded in 1973. Its principal purpose is to create generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP) with the public?s interest in mind. The FASB was to have members from various accounting groups instead of just one. There was one representative from the eight groups that were already formed and had special knowledge and interest in accounting (Schroeder et al., p. 10, 2005). The institution that presides over the FASB is the Financial Accounting Foundation (FAF). The International Accounting Standards Board (IASB) was originally called the International Accounting Standards Committee (IASC) and formed in 1973 also. This organization was similar to the FASB, but was to generate principles worldwide. Originally, it consisted of nine countries. In 2001 the IASB formed and kept all the original pronouncements from the IASC. Currently, the IASB consists of 15 members with various areas of expertise. IASB Equivalents for FASB In 2002, the Norwalk Agreement was issued. The Norwalk Agreement is a memo of understanding that was signed between the IASB and FASB in Norwalk, Connecticut. The general idea of this memo is that both of these groups have the same plans of developing first-rate standards. They are trying to make their current standards compatible with each other as well as collaborate a plan for the future to remain compatible. A few topics on the agenda are: business combinations, consolidations, performance reporting, and revenue recognition. According to Schroeder, et al., 2005 (p. 89), both boards agree to: 1.Undertake a short-term project aimed at removing a variety of differences between U.S. GAAP and IRFSs. 2.Remove any other differences between IFRSs and U.S. GAAP that remained on January 1, 2005, by undertaking projects that both boards would address concurrently. 3.Continue the progress on the joint projects currently underway. 4.Encourage their respective interpretative bodies to coordinate their activities. The goal of this project is to achieve compatibility by identifying common high-quality solutions. The SEC is supportive of this idea and thinks it would be beneficial to have one set of GAAPs globally to all stakeholders. The timeline was modified as recent as February. The new plan is designed to allow more time for all parties to extensively review suggestions brought forward. The goal on the decision to use IFRS in the financial reporting system for U.S. issuers is 2011 (, 2010). MSA Program The Master?s of Science in Accounting (MSA) program is defined by the University of Phoenix (UOP) as ?The Master of Science in Accountancy program helps students master the theory and principles that frame a wide range of problems and issues encountered in the accounting profession. Coursework includes accounting theory and research, accounting information systems, managerial accounting, financial reporting, auditing, taxation, not-for-profit and government accounting, forensic accounting, and accounting ethics? ( Majority of students in this program is preparing for the CPA exam. Each state has their own specific requirements. For this reason, ?we included exam preparation software that you will use throughout your courses and when you are finished with your degree and preparing for the CPA exam? (Lindquist, 2010). Accounting and finance is used in all businesses and industries in some way. Majority of institutions are for profit

Friday, March 6, 2020

Permeability of a Membrane Essays

Permeability of a Membrane Essays Permeability of a Membrane Essay Permeability of a Membrane Essay The starred result has been classed as an anomaly due to its lack of concordance with the other two. For this reason it was ignored when calculating the average.Visual ObservationsAt higher temperatures some water vapour was seen this may have made the pigment less dilute then it would have been had no water escaped. Also at higher temperatures the cubes were seen to float this would increase the surface area because at lower temperatures some faces of the cube were pressed against the sides of the test tube.ErrorsThe random errors were:* Maintaining the temperature of the water bath +/- 10% (this was the most significant)* Human error in reading the thermometer +/- 2%* Human error in reading the colorimeter +/- 2%The systematic errors were:* Inaccuracies in the thermometer +/- 1%* Inaccuracies in the colorimeter +/- 5%ConclusionsThe graph shows clear negative correlation (i.e. As the temperature goes up the light transmission falls). This indicates that the m embrane becomes more permeable at higher temperatures. The sharp fall between 65à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½C and 70à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½C is indicative of a breakdown of the membrane which is in holding with the fluid mosaic model of the membrane whereby at lower temperatures the membrane is tightly packed and gel like but at higher temperatures it becomes less tightly packed and more fluid until eventually it looses its structure and breaks down completely.EvaluationThe method selected would appear to be sound with most of the errors being quite low with only the temperature of the water bath being really significant. This could have been overcome if an automated water bath could have been used; unfortunately this was not possible due to lack of apparatus. Another related problem was reading off the thermometer as one had to make sure it was not at an angle and that the line of sight was directly at the top of mercury to make sure that it was at the right temperature. The results are all stated to two sig nificant figures, as it is reasonable to assume that the equitment was accurate to this degree of precision. It is therefore reasonable to assume that the conclusions drawn are both reliable and accurate.

Wednesday, February 19, 2020

'An investigation in to why consumers may choose to buy a BMW as Essay

'An investigation in to why consumers may choose to buy a BMW as oppose to another brand of car' this could involve examinin - Essay Example An insight into the BMW brand BMW brand seeks to convey the message to consumers that BMW means â€Å"the ultimate driving machine,† and influence the behavior of the consumers. BMW has been successful in creating awareness and ‘esteem value’ of its cars and strengthened its position in the market over the period of time. BMW is synonymous with luxury car and treated as status symbol by the consumers. The brand equity has been built by branding efforts highlighting quality and excellence in performance of its products on a continuous basis. An overview of consumer behavior and the buyer decision making process This section will study and analyze the consumer behavior and its importance in marketing and give an overview of the buyer decision making process in relation to BMW cars. Cars are usually not purchased very often and cost a large amount of money – making them high investment purchases. Problem Recognition The consumer needs a car to travel socially and/or for work purposes/commuting; the need for a car is most likely an active problem (i.e. the consumer is aware that he/she needs a car) Information Search Potential customer researches different makes and models of cars and may look in to indirect competition such as public transport or bicycles. Evaluation of Alternatives The consumer will narrow the choices down until he/she come to a decision; the consumer will normally narrow down from makes that they are aware of, then ones that they would consider buying, then down to a small choice until they come to a decision. Purchase Decision The consumer will take in to account what their family and friends think of the car that he/she has decided to buy – consumers will also asses the risks involved with the purchase such as the financial and social risks. Post Purchase evaluation After purchasing, customers will continue to evaluate the car, this stage is vital to ensure future sales and promote brand loyalty for BMW. Effec tive after sales service plays an important role in enhancing the customer satisfaction. Symbolic Consumption Purchases carry symbolic meanings and can satisfy individual, social, or cultural needs. Driving a car that is perceived to be sporty, luxurious and exclusive can promote individualism and self esteem. Self-concept attached to the product helps to establish the user’s identity. In order for conspicuous consumption to be rewarded and thus maintained in society, individuals must attach symbolic meaning to products that infer something about their owner. This tendency to attach meaning to products is referred to as symbolic consumption. (Belk, Bahn and Mayer 1982; Belk, Mayer and Driscoll 1983). Symbolic consumption involves the owner as an encoder trying to communicate something about themselves through purchasing a product and a decoder who understands the symbolic message; for example: consumers may purchase an expensive car such as a 7-series BMW to show that they ar e well-off; although demographics such as age, gender and social class effect individuals' ability to form impressions about owners of cars. Research shows that children's ability to make inferences about others based on product ownership